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Ibyatoraguwe

IBYATORAGUWE
AMATEGEKO AREBANA N' IBYATORAGUWE

Ibyatoraguwe ni umutungo cyangwa ikindi kintu runaka nk' umwana nyiracyo aba yabuze kigatoragurwa n' abandi. Kuba byemewe gutoragura icyatakaye no kukiranga ni bimwe mubyiza by' idini ya Islamu, kuko harimo kurinda umutungo w' abandi uba watakaye kandi n' uwawutoraguye akawuranga akabihemberwa ku Mana.

IMITUNGO YABUZE IRI MUBICE BITATU

  1. Umutungo uciriritse udakurikiranwa n' abantu nk' inkoni, igice cy' umugati, itunda n' ibindi biciriritse, ibi ubitoraguye arabigumana bikaba ibye iyo nyirabyo atabonetse, kandi singombwa kuyiranga gusa ibyiza ni ukuyitangamo ituro mu izina ry' uwayitaye.
  2. Ibyabuze mu matungo manini ashobora kwikiza inyamanswa nk' ingamiya, inka, ifarasi, n' ibindi nkabyo, ibi ntabwo bitoragurwa, ariko ubitoraguye asabwa kubyishingira akanabiranga.
  3. Indi mitungo isigaye nk' amafaranga, imitungo, ibikapu n' amatungo mato adashobora kwikiza inyamanswa nk' ihene n' intama, bene iy' imitungo biremewe kuyitoragura iyo wizeye ko ntacyo byagutwara, ukaba uzi neza ko uzayiranga,  icyo gihe urayitoragura ukabitangira abahamya babiri b' inyangamugayo, maze ukayiranga umwaka wose ubitangariza ahantu rusange hahurira abantu benshi nk' amasoko, ibinyamakuru n' izindi nzira zishoboka zo kuranga, ariko ukirinda kuvuga ibiranga icyo watoraguye byose kugirango buri wese atabyiyitirira, ahubwo ugakoresha ubwenge ku buryo uvuga ko ari ibye agaragaza ibimenyetso ku burebure nko kuvuga umubare w' amafaranga, aho yari abitswe, ibara ry' itungo n' ibindi.
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  • Iyo icyatoraguwe kiranzwe umwaka wose nyiracyo akaboneka arakimuha nta bimenyetso atanze cyangwa indahiro, iyo nyiracyo abuze amenyesha imiterere yacyo akakigumana iyo nyiracyo abonetse akagaragaza imiterere yacyo arakimuha, cyangwa akamuha inguranwa yacyo iyo yacyangije.
  • Iyo icya toraguwe cyangiritse cyangwa kigasaza cyarazwe kikangirika atari kuburangare ntabwo kishyurwa.

    IBIKORERWA ICYATORAGUWE

    • Iyo icyatoraguwe ari ikintu cyangirika kidashobora kubikwa igihe kirekire agatinya ko cyazapfa ubusa, uwagitoraguye ahitamo kuba yagikoresha ariko akazacyishyura cyangwa akakigurisha akabika agaciro kacyo, ariko ibyo byose akabitangira abahamya babiri b' inyangamugayo, naho iyo ari ikintu gikenera gutungwa no kugaburirwa nk' itungo, muri icyo gihe akirangisha ararigaburira ibyo yaritanzeho akazabisubizwa na nyiraryo.
    • Imvugo yaturutse kwa Zayid Bin Khaalid (Imana imwwishimire) yaravuze ati: Intumwa y' Imana (Imana imuhe amahoro n' imigisha) yabajijwe ku cyatoraguwe ari izahabu n' ifeza, maze Intumwa y' Imana irasubiza iti: "Ujye umenya ububiko bwayo maze ukirangishe umwaka nikitabona nyiracyo mugitunge ariko kibe indagizo ibitswe iwawe, igihe cyose nyiracyo azabonekera uzakimuhe".
    • Nanone Intumwa yabajijwe ku ngamiya yatakaye, maze Intumwa irasubiza iti: "Ujye uyihorera kuko irishoboye, ifite ibinono byayo bikomeye byo gukandagiza, ifite amazi yayo igendana, ishobora kujya kunywa amazi mu mariba, ishobora kurisha kugeza igihe nyirayo azayibonera".
    • Nanone Intumwa yabajijwe ku ihene yatakaye, maze Intumwa irasubiza iti: "Ujye uyitoragura, kuko ishobora kuba iyawe cyangwa ikaba iyu muvandimwe wawe cyangwa ikaba iy' imbwebwe niba utayitoraguye".
    • Abana bato n' abandi badasobanukiwe, ibyo batoraguye birangwa n' abahagararizi babo.

    ITEGEKO RIREBA ICYATORAGUWE KU BUTAKA BUTAGATIFU BWA MAKKA NA MADINAH
    Icyatakaye i Makkah cyangwa i Madinah nta wemerewe kugitoragura keretse agamije kukiranga no kugishyikiriza inzego zishinzwe ibyatakaye, kuko ntabwo byemewe gutunga icyatoraguwe i Makkah cyangwa i Madinah.

    KURANGISHA ICYABUZE MU MUSIGITI
    Ntibyemewe na gato kurangisha icyatakaye mu musigiti, nk' uko bishimangirwa n' imvugo y' Intumwa y' Imana yaturutse kwa Abuu Hurayirat (Imana imwishimire) aho yavuze ati: Intumwa y'Imana yaravuze iti: "Uzumva umuntu arangisha icyo yabuze mu musigiti azavuge ati: Imana ntizakikugarurire, kuko imisigiti itubakiwe ibyo".

    UMWANA WATORAGUWE
    Umwana watoraguwe ni Umwana muto basanze ahantu yatakaye, yayobye cyangwa bahamujugunye, kandi ababyeyi n' inkomoko ye bitazwi. Gutoragura uwo mwana ni ngombwa ku mubonye kandi akaba azi ko nta wundi uri bumutoragure kuko ari ugukiza no gutabara ubuzima bwe no kubuvana mu ngorane, iyo habuze n' umwe umutoragura bose babona icyaha, kandi umutoraguye akamurera abona ibihembo n' ingororano zihambaye ku Mana.

    KURERA UMWANA WATORAGUWE
    Kurera umwana ni uburenganzira bw' uwamutoraguye, iyo akuze kandi ari umwizerwa n' inyangamugayo, ariko ibimutunga bigatangwa n' ikigega cy' umutungo w' Abayislamu (Baytulmaali) keretse iyo bamutoraguranye umutungo icyo gihe niwo bakuramo ibimutunga.

    Iyo uwo mwana apfuye asize umutungo kandi nta wundi asize wo kumuzungura, umutungo we uzungurwa n' ikigega cy' umutungo w' abayislamu (Baytulmaali), Naho uwo mwana aramutse yishwe n' uwabigambiriye ku bushake, icyo gihe umuhagararizi we ni umuyobozi w' abayislamu ri nawe utoranya hagati yo guhora no kwakira impozamarira izashyirwa muri Bayitulmaal.

    Iyo nyuma hagaragaye umugabo cyangwa umugore uvuga ko ari se cyangwa nyina w' uwo mwana yaba ari Umuyislamu cyangwa atari we, uwo mwana aramuhabwa, naho iyo yiyitiriwe n' abantu benshi buri wese avuga ko ari umwana we, bamuha ufite ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko ari uwe, iyo nta bimenyetso bihari bahamagaza abasobanukiwe kumenya uko abantu basa, uwo bagaragaje ko asa n' uwo mwana mu bintu runaka niwe umuhabwa.

    Umusozo w'ibyatoraguwe

    UMURAGE.
    Umurage : ni icyo umuntu ategeka ko kizatangwa mu mutungo nyuma yo gupfa kwe kigahabwa umuntu runaka utari mu bamuzungura.

    IMPAMVU UMURAGE WASHYIZWEHO MU IDINI YA ISLAMU
    Allah yashyizeho umurage ari impuhwe n’imbabazi ku bagaragu be,ubwo yahaga umugaragu we ububasha bwo kuba yagira ingano runaka atanga mu mutungo we ukazatangwa nyuma yo gupfa kwe ugakoreshwa mu bikorwa byiza runaka bifitiye akamaro abakene n'abatishoboye, ibyo bigira inyungu ku wawutanze zo kuzagororerwa ku Mana.

    Allah yaravuze ati:

    “Mwategetswe gutanga umurage igihe umwe muri mwe yegereje gupfa asize umutungo, uwo murage ugahabwa ababyeyi bombi n'abo bafitanye isano,ibyo bigakorwa mu buryo bwemewe, ibyo ni ukuri kubatinya Allah".
    Qorani 2:180

    Icyitonderwa:
    Umurage uvugwa muri uyu murongo wa Qor'ani byari imbere yo guhishurwa kw'imirongo igaragaza amategeko yo kuzungura n'abazungura harimo n'ababyeyi bombi,bityo abafite igeno mu kuzungura ntibahabwa umurage,ariko umurage ukomeza kwemerwa ku bandi bantu bo mu muryango batari mu bazungura.

    Ibi bishimangirwa n'imvugo y'Intumwa Muhamadi (Allah amuhe amahoro n'imigisha) igira iti: " Allah yageneye buri wese umugabane we wo kuzungura uwe wapfuye,bityo uri mu bazungura ntiyemerewe guhabwa umurage ". Iyi mvugo iboneka mu gitabo cya Tirmidhi,Ibnu Majah na Nasai

    UMWANYA UMURAGE UFITE MU IDINI YA ISLAMU
    Gutanga umurage ni igikorwa cyiza ku muntu ufite umutungo mwinshi kandi abamuzungura bakaba badakennye, icyo gihe yemerewe kuraga ibitarenze kimwe cya gatatu (1/3) cy'umutungo we, kigakoreshwa mu byiza kugirango agerweho n’ibihembo byabyo nyuma y’uko apfa.

    Ni ngombwa gusiga umurange wo kwishyura umwenda waba uwa Allah nka Zakat cyangwa umwenda abereyemo mugenzi we,ibyo byose agomba kubyandika bikamenyekana kugirango bitazaburizwamo.

    Usize umutungo mwinshi ni byiza ko araga abo bafitanye isano batemerewe kumuzungura, ariko atarengeje kimwe cya gatatu(1/3) cy'umutungo afite.

    Ibyiza ni uko uraga igihe afite abazamuzungura yaraga ibingana na kimwe cya gatanu(1/5) cyangwa kimwe cya kane(1/4) cy'umutungom igihe afite umutungo mwinshi,ariko kuraga kimwe cya gatanu ni byo byiza.

    Ntabwo ari byiza gutanga umurage igihe nta mutungo uhagije ufite kandi abo usize bawukeneye, biranemewe kandi ko umuntu yaraga umutungo we wose mu gihe ntabo afite bazamuzungura.

    Ntibyemewe ko umuntu yaraga abazungura be, keretse ari umurage wo kubashoboza gukora umugenzo wa Hija cyangwa kubatangira igitambo bakiriho,nko kub yavuga ati:nimpfa,Mama azafate mu mutungo wanjye ibizamushoboza gukora Hija,cyangwa akavuga ati: nimpfa Papa azahabwe mu mutungo wanjye uwo kugura igitambo,kuko ibi ni murwego rwo kwiyegereza Imana no kugirira abawe ineza,bitandukanye n'umurage usanzwe kuko wo uba ugamije guha umuntu umutungo azasigarana kandi ibyo ntibyemewe ku bazungura.

    Uhabwa umurage agomba kuba yujuje ibi bikurikira:
    Umuyisilamu, afite ubwenge, asobanukiwe, ashobora gukoresha neza ibyo yarazwe yaba umugabo cyangwa umugore. Umurage wemerwa iyo utanzwe n’ugeze mu gihe cy’ubukure afite ubwenge, umwana uciye akenge n’umuntu utazi gukoresha neza umutungo n'abandi.

    Umurage wemerwa ari uko uwutanga akoresheje imvugo yumvikana cyangwa inyandiko, bikaba byiza ko utanga umurage awiyandikira akabitangira abahamya kugira ngo bice impaka .

    Abdillahi mwene Omar yavuze ko intumwa Muhamad (Allah amuhe amahoro n’imigisha) yavuze iti :” umuyisilamu ugize urugendo rumara iminsi ibiri afite icyo yatangaho umurage, ni byiza ko yasiga awanditse". Yakiriwe na Bukhari na Muslimu

    biremewe kwisubiraho ku murage umuntu yatanze akawaka uwo yawuhaye kimwe n'uko yawugabanya cyangwa akawongera, ariko iyo apfuye nta gishobora guhinduka uguma nk'uko yawutanze.

    Umurage uremewe ku kintu cyose gifite akamaro, nk’uko umurage wemewe kuba watangwa mu kubaka umusigiti ,kubaka ibiraro no kubaka amashuri n'ibindi bikorwa byiza.

    UBURYO BWO GUTANGA UMURAGE.
    Umurage ushobora kuba ibintu runaka umuntu asabye undi ko azamukorera nyuma yo gupfa kwe, nko kuba yamusaba kuzashyingira abakobwa be cyangwa kuzamurerera abana be bato,cyangwa akamusaba kuzatanga kimwe cya gatatu cy'umutungo we mu bikorwa runaka, kubikora nk'uko yabimusabye rero ni igikorwa cyiza cyo kwiyegereza Allah ugikoze azagihemberwa.

    Umurage ushobora no kuba gutanga umutungo,nko kuba yaraga kimwe cya gatanu(1/5) cy'umutungo we ko kizahabwa abantu runaka nk'abakene,abanyeshuri,kubaka umusigiti,gucukura amariba n'imigezi n'ibindi bikorwa byiza.

    Ni byiza kuraga abo mufitanye isano batari mu bakuzungura, kuko kubaraga biba ari no gufasha umuryango wawe.

    GUHINDURA UMURAGE NYUMA YO GUPFA K'UWAWUTANZE
    Umurage ugomba gutangwa ugamije ineza, naho iyo umuntu araze umutungo we agamije kugirira nabi abazamuzungura nko kuba yaraga agirango bo kuzabona ibyo bazungura,ibyo ntabwo byemewe ndetse abikoze yaba akoze icyaha imbere y'Imana. Kirazira guhindura umurage watanzwe mu buryo bukurikije amategeko,uwabikora aba akoze icyaha. Umenye ko mu murage runaka habayemo kurengera amategeko, agomba kugira inama abo bireba bakawuhindura bagamije gutunganya no gukosora ibyakozwe nabi mu rwego rwo kwirinda amahugu.

    Allah yaravuze ati:

    "Uzahindura umurage watanzwe neza nyuma yo kumva itegeko ryawo,icyaha kizaba kubazawuhindura, mu by'ukuri Allah arumva kandi ni umumenyi wa byose,ariko uzabona ko uwaraze yabogamye cyangwa yahuguje mu kuraga kwe,maze agasubiramo umurage mu rwego rwo gutunganya, nta cyaha azaba akoze, mu by'ukuri Allah ni nyirimbabazi nyirimpuhwe”.
    Qor’an 2:181-182

    Ntibyemewe gutanga umurage uzakoreshwa mu bikorwa bibi nko kubaka amazu yo gukoreramo ibibi n'ibindi. Iyo umuntu apfuye, mu mutungo we habanza gukurwamo imyenda, hagakurikiraho umurage, ibisigaye bikagabana abamuzungura. Uragwa ashobora kuba ari umwe cyangwa bakaba benshi, iyo babaye benshi buri wese akamugenera umwihariko we ibyo biremerwa , naho iyo abaragwa ari babiri akabaraga ikintu kimwe ,nko kuba bose baragwa kwita kubana be cyangwa gucunga umutungo we ntabwo umwe muri bo yemerewe kugira icyo akora wenyine.

    Biremewe ko uragwa yemera umurage mu gihe umuraga akiriho cyangwa nyuma yo gupfa kwe, iyo abyanze haba igihe uraga akiriho cyangwa nyuma yo gupfa,uburenganzira bwe ku murage buburiramo kuko yawanze. Umuntu aramutse apfiriye ahantu hatari umuyobozi cyangwa se atabona uwo aha araga nk'upfiriye mu butayu icyo gihe abayislamu bahaturiye bemerewe gutwara umutungo asize bakawukoresha mu bifitiye akamaro ubuyisilamu.

    INYANDIKO Y'UMURAGE.
    Ni byiza ko ku ntangiriro y'inyandiko y'umurage hakwandikwa amagambo yashimangiwe n'umusangirangendo witwa Anasi mwene Maliki (Allah amwishimire) aho yavuze ati: " Abasangirangendo b'Intumwa Muhamadi (Allah amuhe amahoro n'imigisha) bajyaga bandika ku ntangiriro y'umurage amagambo akurikira: Uyu ni umurage wa kanaka mwene kanaka,araze ko ahamya ko nta wundi ukwiye kugaragirwa by'ukuri uretse Allah we utagira undi babangikanye, kandi ko Muhamadi ari umugaragu we akaba n'Intumwa ye (Allah amuhe amahoro n'imigisha), kandi ntagushidikanya ko imperuka izaba,kandi ko Allah azazura abari mu mva.

    Araze abo asize mu muryango we gutinya Allah ukuri ko kumutinya, kandi abaraze kuzakomeza kumvikana no gushyira hamwe, abaraze kumvira Allah n'Intumwa ye Muhamadi niba koko ari abemeramana nyakuri, abaraze ibyo Ibrahimu na Yaqubu (Allah abahe amahoro) baraze urubyaro rwabo. Nk'uko bishimangira na Allah aho agira ati:"

    ...Bana banjye! Allah yabahitiye mo idini, muramenye ntimuzapfe mutari Abayislamu ".
    Qor'ani 2: 132

    Nyuma y'aho akabona kuvuga ibyo yashakaga kuraga". Iyi mvugo iboneka mu gitabo cya Bayihaqi na Darukutuni

    UMURAGE WANGIZWA N'IBI BIKURIKIRA

    • Iyo uwarazwe gukurikirana ibintu runaka asaze.
    • Iyo icyarazwe cyangiritse.
    • Iyo uwaraze yisubiyeho kubyo yaraze.
    • Iyo uwarazwe abyanze.
    • Iyo uwarazwe apfuye mbere y'uwamuraze.
    • Iyo uwarazwe yishe uwaraze.
    • Iyo igihe cy'umurage kirangiye cyangwa umurimo yamuraze gukora ukarangira.
    Umusozo w'umurage.